This post isn't about learning Metascript, though, or about the differences between it and other programming languages, or how Lua/Metascript sucks compared to your favorite language. Just because you come from a background where arrays are indexed from zero doesn't mean that indexing from one is wrong. And if you want to argue the point, then I'll point out that Lua doesn't have arrays anyway.
One of the things that will strike Lua programmers is the extra set of definitions available in Metascript:
- Define Properties()
- Define Commands()
- Trigger foo()
- Command bar()
- WebTrigger baz()
These all start "special" functions in Metascript, and aren't standard Lua. What post-alpha users might not know, though, is that these are just colourful candy coatings for some mundane-looking counterparts:
- function def_properties()
- function def_commands()
- function trg_foo()
- function cmd_bar()
- function trg_http_baz()
In fact, way back when we also included the "trg_" prefix in the SendTo() calls. As far as I know, these old methods still work; I assume this because
- I still have old worlds that use it (thought I haven't visited them in a while)
- We were told that they wouldn't stop working
Kinda takes some of the mystery away, doesn't it? I can see why the change was made: it helps to emphasize the special nature of these functions from others defined with "function XXX()"; and it hides the unfortunate fact that variable prefixes are used to denote semantic meaning. Don't consider them variables? In Lua,
is equivalent to
Hrm. I'm now curious whether I could write
def_properties=function() foo_bar=0 end
in Metascript and have it work. I'm going to guess not, which I'll talk about shortly.
So, should you use function trg_foo() instead of Trigger foo() ? One reason you might is to do some offline programming, so you have code that compiles under a standard Lua interpreter, but can still be tested (by implementing your own backend library that knows how to handle Triggers and Commands). I've used this in the past to do some rapid development and to avoid some editor idiosyncrasies.
Define Properties() and Define Commands() (or function def_properties()...)
I've made no secret my dislike for these "functions". Define Properties() is where you define your script properties (where they might collide with others on the object), include scripts (similar to Lua's dofile()), expose properties and export functions.
Define Commands() is where you define your MakeInput()s and your MakeCommand()s. (There used to be a separate function def_inputs() -- I wonder if that still works.)
These functions are handled "specially"; they're actually executed at compile time, which can reveal bugs earlier than runtime, such as attempting to access functions that aren't available (which is almost all of them). That means no Debug(), no AlertToPlace() - no pairs() or ipairs().
They're actually code, though; you can have for loops in here, if there's anything worth looping over, and conditionals, if there's anything to compare. But generally, these functions act as definition blocks, and might better be implemented as such, extending the Metascript further from standard Lua. Then we could have some alternate notation for defining properties, such as
instead of relying on
to work. Which it won't. This is because behind-the-scenes, any local variables defined in this block are being specially processed into member variables on a C++ object on the server (all supposition -- I'm not actually privy to the source code). Being C++, types need to be known and once defined, permanent. This means that, unlike Lua, Metascript won't let you redefine the type of a property once it has been set (and this is a reason why I advocate table properties). Not only that, but it means that certain Lua types - ones that aren't available in C++ - aren't allowed as properties, such as booleans and functions. I would expect that supporting table properties had to require a bit of work, having the Lua form of the table being converted into something that C++ understands, and can hold, so why not a Lua function? Why not the lowly boolean? Also, this desire to define property type using Lua notation, instead of just creating a custom definition block, leads to ugliness such as
to define a property as an object. Ouch.
As for Define Commands(), I'll just re-iterate from my previous post that I don't understand why MakeInput() and MakeCommand() cannot be used outside of Define Commands(). Sure, some compile-time checking is nice, but you're not saving me from all sorts of other scripting bugs, so why this? Also, these definitions check whether a Command specified in MakeCommand() is actually defined. Why? What's so bad about a Command being sent that doesn't have a handler? Triggers allow this (and allow multiple handlers), yet Commands must have specifically 1.
And because I just can't let it go: why are these two scripts run in such a tight sandbox? Fine, it might make no sense to call SendTo() while defining properties, or perhaps not even Debug() while defining an input, but no pairs()/ipairs()? Am I really the first person to write "code" in these blocks, instead of just a handful of definitions and pre-structured function calls?
In Lua, everything is a global variable unless you define it as "local". In Metascript, too, your definitions have a global scope within a script -- this probably bites me in the ass once a week, since I tend to write a lot of recursive functions. The "within a script" is important, though. When first looking at Metascript, and Metaplace, and the idea that multiple scripts are attached to an object, you might want to think that these are all loaded into a shared environment as far as the object is concerned. However, this isn't true, and rightfully so.
is the same as
is the same as
? Well this would be problematic if all scripts shared the same scope, because it would mean that an object couldn't have definitions for a Trigger function more than once, as the latter ones would overwrite the former, and having multiple definitions for the same Trigger is a key, powerful part of Metaplace. This scoping is unfortunate, however, because this means if we use IncludeScript() to import a set of functions, we have to do it for every script that needs them, instead of just having it imported once for the object. This makes it awkward to have a library that's used throughout a set of scripts.
Also, the scope affects the idea of "self". Commands and Triggers, usually the largest portion of a script, have an inherent sense of self. But functions do not. Why? Well, they actually used to, I believe before we had IncludeScript(), so there wasn't a question of the context in which a function was being run. Not being privy to the way the Lua sandbox is being run, I'm not exactly sure why "self" can't still be defined in the environment of a function call, but it is no longer supported - you must now pass it in explicitly.
Stock Lua also has a userdata type -- it's basically a C++ object -- so this doesn't make Metascript different in that regard. However, because every object in Metaplace is represented by a userdata object, how they interact in script is important.
Knowing the structure of the userdata is usually required, because there's no reflection or introspection by default; you can access self.foo if you know it's there, but if you don't, you have no way to ask (not exactly true, see below). Why is this important? If I don't know that self.foo is there, should I really be using it?
Well, yes, sometimes there are cases where iterating over everything is a good idea. One case is the set of stylesheet API functions that Metaplace provides. These let us look at the stylesheet (basically, the static portion of a world), to peruse the templates, places, sprites, scripts and modules. To do this without any prior knowledge, we need to be able to iterate over them all, much the same way that pairs() and ipairs() allow us to iterate through a table. In some cases, we have a special ._all_ property on the userdata, which returns a table which can indeed be iterated over with ipairs(). But why not all the time?
For instance, if I want to browse the Places in my world, I can access a userdata object with stylesheet.places, and if I know the name of one, I can index into this userdata, such as stylesheet.places["0:1"]. Alternately, I can use stylesheet.places._all_ and loop through them all, finding the one I want. And once I have a specific Place, I can get another userdata from it with someplace.tiles. Not knowing anything about how many tiles there might be, I don't know what to ask for specifically, so I try someplace.tiles._all_, and get back ... nothing. It turns out that instead of a nice table to iterate through, I have to basically guess the indexes of the tiles, with something like
while someplace.tiles[t] do
And worse, there are other objects, such as the Place itself, that neither have a way to iterate (with ._all_) nor to enumerate (with a 0->n loop), but that you just have to guess/know the properties of, hoping that the wiki documentation is up-to-date. Again, this isn't something specific to Metascript -- Lua userdata can have this problem too -- but it would be nice if we had the ._all_ table available on all accessible userdata objects. Alternately, all userdata objects could act as tables for purposes of using pairs() or ipairs(), if they really wanted to.
Metatables (the "meta" being unrelated to Metaplace) of Lua are a very powerful feature, one that, in my opinion, turns Lua from a simple toy language into a powerful full-featured one. Metatables allow us to redefine our environment, creating a sandbox where a limited set of functions might be available. Metatables allow tables to take on new functionality, such as addition of two tables, or different handling of accessing values that don't exist. And metatables ... aren't available in Metascript.
My only guess is that the current sandboxing provided to the Metaplace scripts makes further access to metatables ... hard? Unwise? Dangerous? Confusing? I'm not sure, but it's a real shame that we don't have them. Granted, they're an advanced feature, and it's quite likely that very few Metaplace users will notice their absence, but heavier coders like myself certainly do, and working around them can be difficult, awkward, or near impossible.
Case in point: I'm writing a vector/matrix library for Metaplace, to help implement a new physics engine that I'm writing. Such a library must exist for Lua somewhere, right? Sure, there are some out there, but most (all?) wisely take advantage of metatables to overwrite the built-in operators, since it makes for much nicer and cleaner usage of such a library if I can say
which I have to do now. Even something as simple as making the vectors printable:
is a lot nicer than
Small things? Yes, but these only touch on what metatables can allow. Frankly, I'd like to stop there because I don't want to realize what other powerful things I cannot do in Metascript because of their absence.
All that being said, Metascript isn't a bad language. It's Lua at its heart, with a few surgeries to make it tick a little differently, some of which might have been required, or some only elective. This customized version of Lua hasn't itself prevented me from doing anything in Metaplace, apart from quickly porting in pure-Lua code from the internet; any walls I've hit have been with the Metaplace platform itself, and not the scripting language.